Ethiopia is not coloured red on the World Press Freedom Index map for the first time since the five-colour designation was adopted in 2013. As soon as he became prime minister in 2018, Ahmed Ali released numerous detained journalists and bloggers. In 2019, he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Ethiopia’s new authorities have restored access to more than 200 news websites and blogs that had been blocked for years, and Ethiopian TV stations abroad now work freely. However, this initial progress has not been institutionalized and journalists worry that the winds of freedom might be just a passing breeze. Draconian press legislation – including the 2009 terrorism law widely used to detain journalists – has still not been amended. On the contrary, Ethiopia’s repressive arsenal of rules and regulations has been reinforced by a law on hate speech and disinformation adopted in early 2020 during a wave of intercommunal violence. This law stipulates heavy fines and prison sentences and is worded ambiguously to allow maximum leeway of interpretation. The intimidation and brief arrests of journalists, plus several Internet cuts, have only boosted concern about a return to the repressions of the past. One military general has threatened reprisals against media outlets that “tarnish the reputation of the armed forces”.